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تاپیک: Corporations

  1. Top | #1

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض Corporations

    General Dynamics



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    General Dynamics Corporation
    Type Public (NYSE: GD)
    Founded Falls Church, Virginia (February 21, 1952)
    Headquarters Falls Church, Virginia
    Key people Nicholas D. Chabraja, Chairman and CEO
    Industry Defense
    Products Conglomerate
    Revenue $24.06 Billion USD (2006)
    Net income $1.71 Billion USD (2006)
    Employees 81,200 (2007)
    Website www.gd.com

    General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2006 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. The company has four main business segments: Marine Systems, Combat Systems, Information Systems and Technology, and Aerospace.

    The company was formed in 1952 from a merger of submarine contractor Electric Boat Company (founded 1899) and Canadair (founded 1944), though Electric Boat had owned controlling interest in Canadair since 1946. The Electric Boat Company is the founding unit and parent company to General Dynamics. The company can trace its origins back to February 7, 1899 when it was incorporated as Electric Boat in the state of New Jersey.

    Legacy and Acquisitions

    * 1899 - Electric Boat was established and became General Dynamics in 1952
    * 1946 - Canadair purchased from the Canadian government
    * 1953 - Convair merged with General Dynamics[3]
    * 1959 - Henry Crown acquires company and becomes majority shareholder.
    * 1962-1963 - Convair-produced Mercury -Atlas rockets launches four manned Mercury missions into low Earth orbit, including John Glenn.
    * 1971-1985 David S. Lewis, Jr., was chairman and chief executive officer. During his tenure, General Dynamics’ revenues and earnings quadrupled.
    * 1982 - Formed General Dynamics Combat Systems after the acquisition of Chrysler's combat systems
    * 1995 - Acquired Bath Iron Works from Prudential Insurance, established in 1890
    * 1996 - Acquired Teledyne Vehicle Systems.
    * 1997 - Acquired Lockheed Martin Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Armament Systems.
    * 1997 - Acquired Advanced Technology Systems, formerly an operating unit of Lucent Technologies.
    * 1997 - Acquired Computing Devices International, formerly a division of Ceridian Corporation.
    * 1998 - Acquired National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, established in 1905
    * 1999 - Acquired Gulfstream Aerospace from Forstmann Little, the company was founded in 1958
    * 1999 - Acquired GTE Government Systems, Communication Systems, Electronic Systems and Worldwide Telecommunication Systems Divisions.
    * 2001 - Acquired Galaxy Aerospace Company from Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI)
    * 2001 - GD Decision Systems formed (and later merged with General Dynamics C4 Systems) after acquisition of Motorola's Integrated Information Systems Group
    * 2002 - Acquired Advanced Technical Products
    * 2003 - Acquired GM Defense from General Motors
    * 2003 - Acquired Steyr Daimler Puch Spezialfahrzeug (SSF) from an Austrian investor group, which bought the company in 1998 from the Steyr-Daimler-Puch-conglomerate. SSF is now part of "General Dynamics European Land Combat Systems" which includes also the Spanish Santa Bárbara Sistemas and the Swiss MOWAG, and has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria.
    * 2003 - Acquired Veridian and Digital Systems Resources.
    * 2003 - Acquired Datron’s Intercontinental Manufacturing Company (IMCO) Unit
    * 2004 - Acquired Spectrum Astro.
    * 2005 - Acquired FC Business Systems.
    * 2005 - Acquired Tadpole Computer.
    * 2006 - Acquired Anteon International.

    Divestitures

    * Coal mining
    * Building materials
    * Limestone
    * Concrete
    * 1967 - General Atomics to Gulf Oil
    * 1976 - Canadair sold back to the Canadian government
    * 1981 - Following expropriation legislation passed by the government of the Province of Quebec, General Dynamics' Canadian subsidiary sold its 54.6% controlling interest in Asbestos Corporation Limited to the Quebec government-owned creation, Société nationale de l'amiante (SNA).
    * 1991 - Data Systems Division outsourced to Computer Sciences Corp.
    * 1992 - Tactical Missiles Division to Hughes Aircraft Company.
    * 1992 - Cessna to Textron
    * 1993 - Fixed-wing military aircraft to Lockheed.
    * 1993 - Space Systems Division to Martin Marietta.
    * 1994 - Convair's aerostructures unit to McDonnell Douglas, (Convair closed in 1996).


    Corporate governance

    Current members of the board of directors of General Dynamics are: Nicholas Chabraja, James Crown , Lester Crown , William Fricks, Charles Goodman, Jay L. Johnson, George Joulwan, Paul Kaminski, John Keane, Lester Lyles, Carl Mundy, and Robert Walmsley.

  2. Top | #2

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporation

    Northrop



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    The Northrop Corporation was a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States.

    Jack Northrop founded three companies using his name. The first was the Avion Corporation in 1927, which was absorbed in 1929 by the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation as a subsidiary named "Northrop Aviation Corporation". The parent company moved its operations to Kansas in 1931, and so Jack, along with Donald Douglas, established a "Northrop Corporation" located in El Segundo, California, which produced several successful designs, including the Northrop Gamma and Northrop Delta. However, labor difficulties led to the dissolution of the corporation by Douglas in 1937, and the plant became the El Segundo Division of Douglas Aircraft.

    Northrop still wanted his own company, and so in 1939 established the "Northrop Corporation" in nearby Hawthorne, California that lasted until 1994. It was there that that the P-61 night fighter, the Flying Wings (B-35 and YB-49), the F-89 interceptor, the Snark intercontinental missile and the F-5 jet fighter (and its derivative, the successful T-38 trainer) were developed and built.

    In 1994, partly due to the loss of the Advanced Tactical Fighter contract to Lockheed Martin and the removal of their proposal from consideration for the Joint Strike Fighter competition, the company merged with Grumman to form Northrop Grumman.

    The company was notable in the 1940s for experimentation with flying wings; although a number of designs were flight-tested, only the B-2 stealth bomber of the 1980s ever made it to production and deployment.

  3. Top | #3

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporation

    McDonnell Douglas


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    Fate Merged with Boeing
    Successor The Boeing Company
    Founded April 28, 1967
    Defunct August 1, 1997
    Location St. Louis, Missouri

    McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It merged with Boeing in 1997 to form The Boeing Company.

    Background

    The company was founded from the firms of James Smith McDonnell and Donald Wills Douglas. Both men were of Scottish ancestry, graduates of MIT and had worked for the aircraft manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company. Douglas had been chief engineer at Martin before leaving to establish Davis-Douglas Company in early 1920 in Los Angeles. He bought out his backer and renamed the firm the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921.

    McDonnell founded J.S. McDonnell & Associates in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1928. His idea was to produce a personal aircraft for family use. The economic depression from 1929 ruined his ideas and the company collapsed. He went to work for Glenn L. Martin. He left in 1938 to try again with his own firm, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, this time based near St. Louis, Missouri.

    World War II was a major earner for Douglas. The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945 and the workforce swelled to 160,000. Both companies suffered at the end of hostilities, facing an end of government orders and a surplus of aircraft. Both heavily cut their work forces.

    After the war, Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the DC-6 (1946) and the DC-7 (1953). The company moved into jet propulsion, producing their first for the military - the conventional F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more 'jet age' F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the Boeing 707. McDonnell was also developing jets, but being smaller they were prepared to be more radical, building on their successful FH-1 Phantom to become a major supplier to the Navy with the F2H Banshee, F3H Demon, and the F-101 Voodoo. The advent of the Korean War helped push McDonnell into a major military fighter supply role, especially with the noted F-4 Phantom II (1958).

    Both companies were eager to enter the new missile business, Douglas moving from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike program and becoming the main contractor of the Skybolt ALBM program and the Thor ballistic missile program. McDonnell made a number of missiles, including the unusual ADM-20 Quail, as well as experimenting with hypersonic flight, research that enabled them to gain a substantial share of the NASA projects Mercury and Gemini. Douglas also gained contracts from NASA, notably for part of the enormous Saturn V rocket. Both companies were now major employers, but both were having problems.


    Douglas was strained by the cost of the DC-8 and DC-9, and the companies began to sound each other out about a merger. Inquiries began in 1963; Douglas offered bid invitations from December 1966 and accepted that of McDonnell. The two firms were officially merged on April 28, 1967 as the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC).

    History

    In 1967, with the merger of McDonnell and Douglas Aircraft, Dave Lewis, then president of McDonnell, was named chairman of what was called the Long Beach, Douglas Aircraft Division. At the time of the merger, Douglas Aircraft was estimated to be less than a year from bankruptcy. Flush with orders, the DC-8 and DC-9 aircraft were 9 to 18 months behind schedule, incurring stiff penalties from the airlines. Mr. Lewis was active in DC-10 sales in an intense competition with the Lockheed L-1011. In two years, Mr. Lewis had the operation back on track and in positive cash flow. He returned to the company's St. Louis headquarters where he continued sales efforts on the DC-10 and managed the company as a whole as President and Chief Operating Officer through 1971.

    The DC-10 began production in 1968 with the first deliveries in 1971. In 1977, the next generation of DC-9 variants, dubbed the "Super 80" (later renamed the MD-80) Series, was launched. This proved to be a very successful program. The next aircraft to be launched was the MD-11, an improved, upgraded version of DC-10. To date, the MD-11 remains the only modern trijet. After its launch in 1986, the MD-11 sold 200 units, but was discontinued in 2001 after the merger with Boeing as it competed with the Boeing 777. McDonnell Douglas's final commercial aircraft was launched in 1988. The MD-90 was a stretched version of the MD-80, equipped with International Aero Engines V2500 turbofans, the largest rear-mounted engines ever on a commercial jet. The MD-95, a modern regional aircraft closely resembling the DC-9-30, was the last McDonnell Douglas designed commercial jet produced.

    The KC-10 was the second consecutive McDonnell Douglas transport aircraft to be selected by the US Air Force in 1976. The first was the C-9 Nightingale. However, the buy of both aircraft was curtailed by the end of the Cold War. This curtailment combined with the loss of both the Advanced Tactical Fighter and Joint Strike Fighter contracts hurt McDonnell Douglas.

    Through the years, McDonnell Douglas also produced many successful military aircraft, including the F-15 Eagle (1974) and the F/A-18 Hornet (1975) as well as the Harpoon and Tomahawk missiles. The oil crisis of the 1970s was a serious shock to the commercial aviation industry and McDonnell Douglas was forced to contract heavily and also began to diversify to reduce the impact of potential future downturns.

    In 1984, McDonnell Douglas expanded into helicopters by purchasing Hughes Helicopters from the Summa Corporation. McDonnell-Douglas paid $500 million for the company, which renamed the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company. This became McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems in 1985. McDonnell Douglas Helicopters most successful product was the Hughes' designed AH-64 Apache attack helicopter.

    On January 13, 1988, McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics won the US Navy Advanced Tactical Aircraft (ATA) contract . The 4.83 billion US dollar contract was to develop the A-12 Avenger II, a stealthy, carrier based, long range flying wing attack aircraft that would replace the A-6 Intruder. Technical issues, over 2 billion dollars in development cost overruns, growing unit costs, and continuous delays led to the termination of the program on January 13, 1991 by then Defense Secretary Dick Cheney. A decade of litigation would proceed over the contract termination: the government claimed that the contractors had defaulted on the contract and were not entitled to a final 1.3 billion dollars in progress payments while McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics believed that the contract was terminated out of convenience and thus the money was owed. As of 2007, the case continues to sit in litigation.[1] The chaos and financial stress created by the collapse of the A-12 program led to the layoff of 5,600 employees.[2] Interestingly enough, the advanced tactical aircraft role vacated by the A-12 debacle would be filled by another McDonnell Douglas program, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.

    In 1992, McDonnell Douglas bravely unveiled a study of a double deck jumbo-sized aircraft designated MD-12 that is similar to the present day Airbus A380. Despite briefly exciting the market, the study was perceived as merely as a public relations exercise to disguise the fact that MDC was struggling under intense pressure from Boeing and Airbus. It was clear to most in the industry that MDC had neither the resources or the money to develop such a monstrous aircraft, and the study quickly sank without trace. Interestingly, a similar double deck concept was used in Boeing's later Ultra-Large Aircraft study intended to replace the 747, but ultimately the double deck concept would not see the light of day until the Airbus A380.

    Following Boeing's 1996 acquisition of Rockwell's North American division, McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing in 1997 in a US$13 billion stock-swap to create The Boeing Company.

    A failed joint venture in China was a major cause of McDonnell Douglas's downfall, as chronicled in Joe Studwell's book The China Dream. He describes McDonnell's returns for two decades in China as "40 Sino-US marriages among its staff and untold embarrassment.

    Products

    Military airplanes

    * F-4 Phantom II (started under McDonnell Aircraft)
    * F-15 Eagle
    * AV-8 Harrier II (in partnership with British Aerospace)
    * F/A-18 Hornet
    * T-45 Goshawk jet trainer (in partnership with British Aerospace)
    * C-17 Globemaster III (Design and early production)

    Commercial airplanes

    * DC-9 (started under Douglas Aircraft)
    * DC-10 (with cockpit upgrade designated MD-10)
    * MD-11 (stretched and modernized version of the DC-10)
    * MD-80 Series (stretched and modernized version of the DC-9)
    * MD-90 (stretched and modernized version of the MD-80)
    * MD-95 (latest evolution of the DC-9, sold as Boeing 717)

    Helicopters

    * AH-64 Apache (started under Hughes Helicopters)
    * MD 500 series (started under Hughes Helicopters)
    * MD 600
    * MD Explorer

    Other

    * Harpoon missile
    * Skylab space station
    آخرین ویرایش توسط Mohammad Reza در تاریخ 2007-Aug-18 انجام شده است

  4. Top | #4

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporation

    Boeing

    (Part I)

    i

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    Type Public (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661 )
    Founded 1916, Seattle, WA
    Headquarters Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
    Key people W. James McNerney, Jr., CEO
    Industry Aerospace and Defense
    Products Commercial airliners
    Military aircraft
    Munitions
    Space systems
    Computer Services
    Revenue $61.5 billion USD (FY 2006)
    Net income $2.2 billion
    Employees 153,000 (2006)
    Divisions Boeing Commercial Airplanes
    Integrated Defense Systems
    Others
    Subsidiaries Aviall
    Jeppesen
    Boeing Australia
    Slogan Forever New Frontiers
    Website Boeing.com

    History

    Before 1950s

    Boeing was incorporated in Seattle, Washington by William E. Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as the "Pacific Aero Products Co." following the June 15 maiden flight of one of the two "B&W" seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U.S. Navy engineer. On May 9, 1917, the company became the "Boeing Airplane Company". William E. Boeing had studied at Yale University and worked initially in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and acquired knowledge about wooden structures. This knowledge would prove invaluable in his subsequent design and assembly of airplanes.


    n 1927 Boeing created an airline named Boeing Air Transport, which merged a year later with Pacific Air Transport and the Boeing Airplane Company. The company changed its name to United Aircraft and Transport Corporation in 1929 and acquired Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Standard Propeller Company, and Chance Vought. United Aircraft then purchased National Air Transport in 1930. The Air Mail Act of 1934 prohibited airlines and manufacturers from being under the same corporate umbrella, so the company split into three smaller companies - Boeing Airplane Company, United Airlines, and United Aircraft Corporation, the precursor to United Technologies. As a result, William Boeing sold off his shares.


    Shortly after, an agreement with Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was reached, to develop and build a commercial flying boat able to carry passengers on transoceanic routes. The first flight of the Boeing 314 Clipper was in June 1938. It was the largest civil aircraft of its time, with a capacity of 90 passengers on day flights, and of 40 passengers on night flights. One year later, the first regular passenger service from the US to the UK was inaugurated. Subsequently other routes were opened, so that soon Pan Am flew with the Boeing 314 to destinations all over the world.

    In 1938, Boeing completed work on the Model 307 Stratoliner. This was the world’s first pressurized-cabin transport aircraft, and it was capable of cruising at an altitude of 20,000 feet. — above most weather disturbances.


    uring World War II, Boeing built a huge number of bombers. Many of the workers were women whose husbands had gone to war. In the beginning of March 1944, production had been scaled up in such a manner that over 350 planes were built each month. To prevent an attack from the air, the manufacturing plants had been covered with greenery and farmland items. During these years of war the leading aircraft companies of the US cooperated. The Boeing-designed B-17 bomber was assembled also by Lockheed Aircraft Corp. and Douglas Aircraft Co., while the B-29 was assembled also by Bell Aircraft Co. and by Glenn L. Martin Company.

    After the war, most orders of bombers were canceled and 70,000 people lost their jobs at Boeing. The company aimed to recover quickly by selling its Stratocruiser, a luxurious four-engine commercial airliner developed from the B-29. However, sales of this model were not as expected and Boeing had to seek other opportunities to overcome the situation. The company successfully sold military aircraft adapted for troop transportation and for aerial refueling.

    1950s

    In the mid-1950s technology had advanced significantly, which gave Boeing the opportunity to develop and manufacture totally new products. One of the first was the guided short-range missile used to intercept enemy aircraft. By that time the Cold War had become a fact of life, and Boeing used its short-range missile technology to develop and build an intercontinental missile .

    In 1958, Boeing began delivery of its 707, the United States' first commercial jet airliner, in response to the British De Havilland Comet, French Sud Aviation Caravelle and Soviet Tupolev Tu-104, which were the world’s first generation of commercial jet aircraft. With the 707, a four-engine, 156-passenger airliner, the US became a leader in commercial jet manufacture. A few years later, Boeing added a second version of this aircraft, the 720, which was slightly faster and had a shorter range. A few years later, Boeing introduced the 727, a commercial jet airliner of similar size but with three engines, designed for medium-range routes. The 727 was immediately well accepted as a comfortable and reliable aircraft by passengers, crews, and airlines. Although production was discontinued in 1984, at the turn of the millennium nearly 1,300 727s were still in service at airlines around the world.


    to be continued..........

  5. Top | #5

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporation

    Boeing


    (Part II)

    1960s

    , was acquired by Boeing in 1960, and was reorganized as Boeing's Vertol division. The twin- rotor CH-47 Chinook, produced by Vertol, took its first flight in 1961. This heavy-lift helicopter remains a work-horse vehicle up to the present day. In 1964, Vertol also began production of the CH-46 Sea Knight.

    n 1967, Boeing introduced another short- and medium-range airliner, the twin-engine 737. It has become since then the best-selling commercial jet aircraft in aviation history . The 737 is still being produced, and continuous improvements are made. Several versions have been developed, mainly to increase seating capacity and range.

    The roll-out ceremonies for the first 747-100 took place in 1968, at the massive new factory in Everett, about an hour's drive from Boeing's Seattle home. The aircraft made its first flight a year later. The first commercial flight occurred in 1970. The 747 has an intercontinental range and a larger seating capacity than Boeing's previous aircraft.


    oeing also developed hydrofoils in the 1960s. The screw driven USS High Point (PCH-1) was an experimental submarine hunter. The patrol hydrofoil USS Tucumcari (PGH-2) was more successful. Only one was built, but it saw service in Vietnam and Europe before running aground in 1972. Its innovative waterjet and fully submersed flying foils were the model for the later Pegasus class patrol hydrofoils and Jetfoil ferries in the 1980s. The Tucumcari and later boats were produced in Renton. While the Navy hydrofoils were withdrawn by the end of the 1980s, the swift and smooth Boeing Jetfoils are still in service in Asia.

    1970s

    In the beginning of the 1970s, Boeing faced a new crisis. The Apollo program, in which Boeing had participated significantly during the preceding decade, was almost entirely canceled. Once more, Boeing hoped to compensate with sales of its commercial airliners. At that time, however, there was a heavy recession in the airlines industry so that Boeing did not receive one single order for more than one year. Boeing's bet for the future, the new 747, was delayed in production and exceeded its estimated development budget. Another problem was that in 1971, the U.S. Congress decided to stop the financial support for the development of the supersonic 2707, Boeing's answer to the British-French Concorde, forcing the company to discontinue the project. The company had to reduce the number of employees from over 80,000 to almost half, only in the Seattle area.

    In January 1970, the first 747, a four-engine long-range airliner, flew its first commercial flight. This famous aircraft completely changed the way of flying, with its 450-passenger seating capacity and its upper deck. Until 2001, Boeing had been the only aircraft manufacturer to offer such an airliner and has delivered nearly 1,400 units. (Airbus now offers the A380, which when delivered will be the largest operational airliner). The 747 has undergone continuous improvements to keep it technologically up-to-date. Larger versions have also been developed by stretching the upper deck.


    During the 1970s, Boeing also developed light rail vehicles which were used in San Francisco, Boston and Morgantown, WV. They were a limited success as different models would be chosen to replace them by the 2000s, although the Morgantown, WV Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) is still in active service at West Virginia University. Most of the Boston cars were decommissioned and destroyed by early 2007.


    1980s

    In 1983, the economic situation began to improve. Boeing assembled its 1,000th 737 passenger airliner. During the following years, commercial aircraft and their military versions became the basic equipment of airlines and air forces. As passenger air traffic increased, competition was harder, mainly from a European newcomer in commercial airliner manufacturing, Airbus. Boeing had to offer new aircraft, and developed the single-aisle 757, the larger, twin-aisle 767, and upgraded versions of the 737. An important project of these years was the Space Shuttle, to which Boeing contributed with its experience in space rockets acquired during the Apollo era. Boeing participated also with other products in the space program, and was the first contractor for the International Space Station. At the same time, several military projects went into production, the Avenger air defense system and a new generation of short-range missiles. During these years, Boeing was very active upgrading existing military equipment and developing new ones.


    1990s

    In April 1994, Boeing introduced its most modern commercial jet aircraft, the twin-engine 777, with a seating capacity of between 300 and 400 passengers in a standard three class layout, in between the 767 and the 747. The longest range twin-engined aircraft in the world, the 777 was the first Boeing airliner to feature a "fly-by-wire" system and was conceived in response to the inroads being made by the European Airbus into Boeing’s traditional market. This aircraft reached an important milestone by being the first airliner to be designed entirely by using CAD techniques. Also in the mid-1990s, the company developed the revamped version of the 737, known as the “Next-Generation 737”, or 737NG. It has since become the fastest-selling version of the 737 in history , and on April 20, 2006 sales passed those of the 'Classic 737', with a follow-up order for 79 aircraft from Southwest Airlines. The “Next-Generation 737” line includes the 737-600, the 737-700, the 737-800, and the 737-900.

    In 1996, Boeing acquired Rockwell’s aerospace and defense units. The Rockwell products became a subsidiary of Boeing, named Boeing North American, Inc. In August of the next year, Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas to form The Boeing Company. Following the merger, the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 was renamed the Boeing 717, and the production of the MD-11 was limited to the freighter version . Boeing introduced a new corporate identity with completion of the merger, incorporating the Boeing logo type and a stylized version of the McDonnell Douglas symbol, which was derived from the Douglas Aircraft logo from the 1970s.

    2000s

    In September 2001, Boeing moved its corporate headquarters from Seattle to Chicago.

    On October 10, 2001, Boeing lost to its rival Lockheed Martin in the fierce competition for the multi-billion dollar Joint Strike Fighter contract . Boeing’s entry, the X-32, was rejected in favor of Lockheed’s F-35 entrant.



    Boeing continues to serve as the prime contractor on the International Space Station and has built several of
    the major components.


    In recent years Boeing has faced an increasingly high competition from Airbus, which offers some commonality between models (reducing maintenance and training costs) and the latest fly-by-wire technology. From the 1970s Airbus has increased its family of aircraft to the point where they can now offer an aircraft in almost every class Boeing does. Indeed, Airbus is now competing in markets that Boeing once had a monopoly over, e.g. the A320 has been selected by several low-cost operators (the aircraft used by these airlines has traditionally been the 737) and the very large aircraft market, the A380. The 747 has suffered by competing with Boeing's 777-300 model.

    After several decades of numerous successes, Boeing lost ground to Airbus and subsequently lost its position as market leader in 2003. Multiple Boeing projects were pursued and then canceled. The Sonic Cruiser is among these projects. The Boeing Sonic Cruiser was launched in 2001 along with a new advertising campaign to promote its new motto, "Forever New Frontiers", and rehabilitate its image. Boeing is now focused on the newly-launched 787 Dreamliner as a platform of total fleet rejuvenation, which uses technology from the Sonic Cruiser concept. The result is that the 787 is the fastest selling wide body airliner in history .

    In 2004, Boeing ended production of the 757 after 1055 were produced. More advanced, stretched versions of the 737 were beginning to compete against the 757, and the new 787-3 will fill some of the top end of the 757 market. Also that year, Boeing announced that the 717, the last civil aircraft to be designed by McDonnell Douglas, would cease production in 2006. The 767 was in danger of cancellation as well, with the 787 replacing it, but recent orders for the freighter version have extended the program. If Boeing wins the contract for new USAF tankers, the 767 program will continue for years to come.


    Recently, Boeing launched a new aircraft, the 787 Dreamliner, and five new variants of existing designs: ultra-long-range 777-200LR, 737-900ER, 737-700ER, 777 Freighter and 747-8. The 777-200LR has the longest range of any commercial aircraft and was first delivered in 2006. The 737-900ER and 737-700ER will extend the range of the -900 and -700 models. Due to rising fuel costs, the more efficient twinjet 777 has been winning orders. The rapid success of the 787 has resulting in Airbus following suit with the competing A350, though the latter still lags behind in development and orders. The 747-8 is a stretched version of the 747-400 and will offer improved efficiency and longer range. Following frequent delays to the Airbus A380 program, some airlines stated they were considering switching their orders to the 747-8 instead.

    In May 2005, Boeing announced its intent to form a joint venture , United Launch Alliance with its competitor Lockheed Martin. The new venture will be the largest provider of rocket launch services to the US government. The joint venture gained regulatory approval and completed the formation on December 1, 2006.

    On August 2, 2005 Boeing sold its Rocketdyne rocket engine division to Pratt & Whitney.

    On May 1, 2006, Boeing announced that it had reached a definitive agreement to purchase Dallas, Texas-based Aviall, Inc. for $1.7 billion and retain $350 million in debt. Aviall, Inc. and its subsidiaries, Aviall Services, Inc. and ILS formed a wholly owned subsidiary of Boeing Commercial Aviation Services (BCAS).


    Unethical conduct

    In May 2003, the US Air Force announced it would lease 100 KC-767 tankers to replace the oldest 136 of its KC-135s. The 10 year lease would give the USAF the option to purchase the aircraft at the end of the contract . In September 2003, responding to critics who argued that the lease was vastly more expensive than an outright purchase, the DOD announced a revised lease of 74 aircraft and purchase of 26.

    In December 2003, the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one if its former procurement staffers, Darleen Druyun (who had moved to Boeing in January) was begun. The fallout of this resulted in the resignation of Boeing CEO Philip M. Condit and the termination of CFO Michael M. Sears. Harry Stonecipher, former McDonnell Douglas CEO and Boeing COO, replaced Condit on an interim basis.

    Druyun pleaded guilty to inflating the price of the contract to favor her future employer and to passing information on the competing Airbus A330 MRTT bid (from EADS). In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined $5,000, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service.

    In March 2005, the Boeing board forced President and CEO Harry Stonecipher to resign. Boeing said an internal investigation revealed a "consensual" relationship between Stonecipher and a female executive that was "inconsistent with Boeing's Code of Conduct" and "would impair his ability to lead the company". James A. Bell served as interim CEO (in addition to his normal duties as Boeing’s CFO) until the appointment of Jim McNerney as the new Chairman, President, and CEO on June 30, 2005.

    Industrial espionage

    In June 2003, Lockheed Martin sued Boeing alleging that the company had resorted to industrial espionage in 1998 to win the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) competition. Lockheed alleged that the former employee Kenneth Branch, who went to work for McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, passed 25,000 proprietary documents to his new employers. Lockheed argued that these documents allowed Boeing to win 21 of the 28 tendered military satellite launches.

    In July 2003, Boeing was penalized, with the Pentagon stripping $1 billion worth of contracts away from the company and awarding them to Lockheed Martin. Furthermore, the company was forbidden to bid for rocket contracts for a twenty-month period which expired in March 2005.

    In early September 2005, it was reported that Boeing was negotiating a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in which it would pay up to $500 million to cover this and the Darleen Druyun scandal.

    Subsidy disputes

    In October 2004, Boeing filed a complaint at the World Trade Organization (WTO), claiming that Airbus had violated a 1992 bilateral accord when it received what Boeing deems as “unfair” subsidies from several European governments. Airbus retaliated by filing another complaint, contesting that Boeing had also violated the accord when it received tax breaks from the U.S. Government. Moreover, the E.U. also complained that the investment subsidies from Japanese airlines violated the accord.

    On January 11, 2005, Boeing and Airbus agreed that they would attempt to find a solution to the dispute outside of the WTO.

    However, in June 2005, Boeing and the United States government reopened the trade dispute with the WTO, claiming that Airbus had received illegal subsidies from European governments. Airbus has also retaliated against Boeing, reopening the dispute and also accusing Boeing of receiving subsidies from the US government.

    Recent product development

    Boeing has recently achieved several consecutive successes, beginning with the formal launch of the 787 for delivery to All Nippon Airways and Air New Zealand. Rollout of the first 787 occurred on July 8, 2007.

    Boeing also received the launch contract from the US Navy for the P-8 Multimission Maritime Aircraft, an anti-submarine warfare patrol aircraft. Several orders for the Wedgetail AEW&C airplanes are expected as well.

    Boeing launched the 777 Freighter in May 2005 with an order from Air France. The freighter variant is based on the -200LR. Other customers include FedEx, Emirates, and Air Atlanta Icelandic.

    Boeing has achieved above projected orders for its 787 Dreamliner, outselling the rival Airbus A350. A large blow to Airbus came as Emirates Airlines president Tim Clark stated that his airline must be convinced that the 250 to 290-seat A350 would not repeat the "misses" by Airbus in performance and delivery. Emirates has held off ordering either airplane as it tries to convince Boeing to build a larger version of the 787, the 787-10, which is the airline’s preferred option. Air Canada also dealt Airbus a blow by replacing its A330 and A340 fleet with 96 Boeing 777s and 787s.

    Boeing officially announced in November 2005 that it would produce a larger variant of the 747, the 747-8, in two models, commencing with the Freighter model for two cargo carriers with firm orders for the aircraft. The second model, dubbed the Intercontinental, would be produced for passenger airlines that Boeing expected would place orders in the near future. Both models of the 747-8 would feature a lengthened fuselage, new, advanced engines and wings, and the incorporation of other technologies developed for the 787.

    Boeing has also introduced new extended range versions of the 737. These include the 737-700ER and 737-900ER. The 737-900ER is the latest and will extend the range of the 737-900 to a similar range as the successful 737-800 with the capability to fly more passengers, due to the addition of two extra emergency exits.

    The 777-200LR Worldliner embarked on a well-received global demonstration tour in the second half of 2005, showing off its capacity to fly farther than any other commercial aircraft. On November 10, 2005, the 777-200LR set a world record for the longest non-stop flight. The plane, which departed from Hong Kong traveling to London, took a longer route, which included flying over the U.S. It flew 11,664 nautical miles (21,601km) during its 22-hour 42-minute flight.

    Realizing that increasing numbers of passengers have become reliant on their computers to stay in touch, Boeing introduced Connexion by Boeing, a satellite based Internet connectivity service that promised air travelers unprecedented access to the World Wide Web . The company debuted the product to journalists in 2005, receiving generally favorable reviews. However, facing competition from cheaper options, such as cellular networks, it proved too difficult to sell to most airlines. In August 2006, after a short and unsuccessful search for a buyer for the business, Boeing chose to discontinue the service.

    The 777-200LR Worldliner embarked on a well-received global demonstration tour in the second half of 2005, showing off its capacity to fly farther than any other commercial aircraft. On November 10, 2005, the 777-200LR set a world record for the longest non-stop flight. The plane, which departed from Hong Kong traveling to London, took a longer route, which included flying over the U.S. It flew 11,664 nautical miles (21,601km) during its 22-hour 42-minute flight.

    to be continued...........
    آخرین ویرایش توسط Mohammad Reza در تاریخ 2007-Aug-18 انجام شده است

  6. Top | #6

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporations

    Boeing


    (Part III)Last Part




    Realizing that increasing numbers of passengers have become reliant on their computers to stay in touch, Boeing introduced Connexion by Boeing, a satellite based Internet connectivity service that promised air travelers unprecedented access to the World Wide Web . The company debuted the product to journalists in 2005, receiving generally favorable reviews. However, facing competition from cheaper options, such as cellular networks, it proved too difficult to sell to most airlines. In August 2006, after a short and unsuccessful search for a buyer for the business, Boeing chose to discontinue the service

    Future concepts

    In May 2006, four concept designs being examined by Boeing were outlined in the Seattle Times. Codenamed after the well-known Muppets (the design team is known as the Green Team), the designs concentrated primarily on reducing fuel usage. All four designs illustrated rear-engine layouts.

    * "Fozzie" employs open rotors and would offer a lower cruising speed.
    * "Beaker" has very thin, long wings, with the ability to partially fold-up to facilitate easier taxiing.
    * "Kermit Kruiser" has forward swept wings over which are positioned its engines, with the aim of lowering noise below due to the reflection of the exhaust signature upward.
    * "Honeydew" with its delta wing design, resembles a marriage of the flying wing concept and the traditional tube fuselage.

    As with most concepts, these designs are only in the exploratory stage intended to help Boeing evaluate the potentials of such radical technologies.

    Environmental record

    Researchers at the University of Massachusetts have listed Boeing as the thirteenth-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States. According to the Center for Public Integrity, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Boeing to more than twenty Superfund toxic waste sites. In 2006, the UCLA Center for Environmental Risk Reduction released a study showing that Boeing's Santa Susana Field Laboratory in Ventura, California had been contaminated with toxic and radioactive waste. The study found that air, soil, groundwater, and surface water at the site all contained radionuclides, toxic metals, and dioxins; air and water additionally contained perchlorate, TCE, and hydrazines, while water showed the presence of PCBs as well.

    Divisions

    The two largest divisions are Boeing Commercial Airplanes and the Integrated Defense Systems. Integrated Defense Systems is Boeing's space and defense division.

    * Boeing Australia, Ltd.
    * Boeing Capital
    * Boeing Commercial Airplanes
    o Airplane Programs
    o 787 Program
    o Commercial Aviation Services
    o BCA subsidiaries:
    + Aeroinfo Systems
    + Alteon Training, formerly FlightSafetyBoeing
    + Aviall, Inc.
    + Aviation Partners Boeing, a 50/50 joint venture with Aviation Partners Inc.
    + Continental Datagraphics
    + Jeppesen, formerly Jeppesen Sanderson.
    + Preston Aviation Solutions
    * Boeing Integrated Defense Systems
    o Advanced Systems
    o Network & Space Systems
    + Boeing Satellite Development Center , formerly a unit of Hughes Electronics
    o Precision Engagement & Mobility Systems
    o Support Systems
    o Joint Ventures
    + Sea Launch (40% Boeing)
    + United Launch Alliance (with Lockheed Martin)
    + United Space Alliance (with Lockheed Martin)
    * Phantom Works
    o Intellectual Property Management
    o Corporate Engineering & Technology
    * Boeing Shared Services Group
    o Information Technology
    o Boeing Realty
    o Boeing Travel Management Company



    Employment By Location

    Arizona 4,618
    California 28,209
    Kansas 2,988
    Missouri 15,822
    Pennsylvania 4,859
    Texas 4,815
    Washington 68,570
    Other Locations 24,200
    Total Company 154,081

    As of 01/31/2007


    Employment By Group (Division)

    Integrated Defense Systems 72,251
    Commercial Airplanes 56,782
    Connexion by Boeing 68
    Boeing Technology 12,319
    Finance & Shared Services 10,508
    Human Resources & Administration 891
    Corporate 1,261
    Other 1
    Total Company 154,081

    As of 01/31/2007

    Corporate governance

    Current Board of Directors

    * W. James McNerney, Jr. - Chairman, President & CEO
    * John H. Biggs
    * John Bryson
    * Linda Cook
    * William M. Daley
    * Kenneth M. Duberstein
    * John McDonnell
    * Richard Nanula
    * Rozanne Ridgway
    * John Shalikashvili
    * Mike S. Zafirovski


    Chief executive officer

    1933–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
    1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson
    1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
    1945–1968 William M. Allen
    1969–1986 Thornton “T” A. Wilson
    1986–1996 Frank Shrontz
    1996–2003 Philip M. Condit
    2003–2005 Harry C. Stonecipher
    2005–2005 James A. Bell (acting)
    2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.


    Chairman of the board

    1916–1934 William E. Boeing
    1934–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt (acting)
    1939–1966 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
    1968–1972 William M. Allen
    1972–1987 Thornton "T" A. Wilson
    1988–1996 Frank Shrontz
    1997–2003 Philip M. Condit
    2003–2005 Lew Platt
    2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.


    President

    1922–1925 Edgar N. Gott
    1926–1933 Philip G. Johnson
    1933–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
    1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson
    1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
    1945–1968 William M. Allen
    1968–1972 Thornton “T” A. Wilson
    1972–1985 Malcolm T. Stamper
    1985–1996 Frank Shrontz
    1996–1997 Philip M. Condit
    1997–2005 Harry Stonecipher
    2005–2005 James A. Bell (acting)
    2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.





    آخرین ویرایش توسط Mohammad Reza در تاریخ 2007-Aug-19 انجام شده است

  7. Top | #7

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporations

    Lockheed Martin


    logo

    Lockheed Martin
    Type Public (NYSE: LMT)
    Founded 1912 (in 1995, company took on current name)
    Headquarters Headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland; locations in 45 U.S. states and 56 countries
    Key people Robert J. Stevens: Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer
    Industry Aerospace and defense
    Products ATC systems, ballistic missiles, munitions, NMD elements, transport aircraft, fighter aircraft, radar, satellites, Atlas launch vehicles, NASA's Orion spacecraft, numerous others
    Revenue $37.213 billion USD (2005), and a backlog of $74.825 billion USD.
    Employees 140,000
    Website www.lockheedmartin.com

    History

    Lockheed Martin was formed by a "merger of equals", both companies contributing important products to the new portfolio. Lockheed products included the Trident missile , P-3 Orion, F-16 Fighting Falcon (the production line being purchased from General Dynamics in 1993), F-22 Raptor, C-130 Hercules, A-4AR Fightinghawk and the DSCS-3 satellite. Martin Marietta products included Titan rockets, Sandia National Laboratories (management contract acquired in 1993), Space Shuttle External Tank, Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers, the Transfer Orbit Stage (under subcontract to Orbital Sciences Corporation) and various satellite models. Six companies not kept after the merger became the foundation for today's L-3 Communications, a mid-sized defense contractor in its own right.

    Shortly after the creation of the company Lockheed Martin acquired the majority of Loral Corporation's defense electronics and system integration businesses for $9.1 billion. The remainder of Loral became Loral Space & Communications.

    In 1998, Lockheed Martin abandoned plans to merge with Northrop Grumman due to government concerns over the potential strength of the new group (Lockheed/Northrop would have had control of 25% of the Department of Defense's procurement budget).

    In September 1999, the Mars Climate Orbiter smashed into the surface of Mars and was destroyed due to a failure to convert imperial measures of rocket thrust (pounds) to metric measures (Newtons). Lockheed, the prime contractor for the mission, measured the thruster firings in pounds, even though the National Aeronautics and Space Administration had requested metric measurements. The $250 million dollar spacecraft burned up or broke apart in the Mars ' atmosphere due to the error. Lockheed accepted blame for the demise of the craft after an investigation revealed that the Lockheed team incorrectly programmed the Mars Climate Orbiter with English units instead of metric units.

    In 2000, Lockheed agreed to pay a $13 million settlement to the U.S. government for breaching the arms export control act. The company passed information to AsiaSat, of which a major shareholder is the Chinese government. According to the U.S. Department of State, the information given to AsiaSat may have helped China improve its missiles. In May 2000, Lockheed Martin sold Lockheed Martin Control Systems to BAE Systems. In November 2000, Lockheed completed the sale of its Aerospace Electronic Systems business to BAE Systems for $1.67 billion. This group encompassed Sanders Associates, Fairchild Systems, and Lockheed Martin Space Electronics & Communications.

    In 2001 Lockheed Martin won the contract to build the F-35 Lightning II. This is the most important fighter aircraft procurement project since the F-16, with an initial order of 3,000 worth $200 billion before export orders.

    In 2003, Lockheed Martin benefited from a U.S. Air Force decision to punish the Boeing Company for conducting industrial espionage against its rival. The USAF revoked $1 billion worth of contracts from Boeing and awarded them to Lockheed Martin. The company sued Boeing in 1998 for stealing documents related to a military contract .

    On January 12, 2006, the U.S. Army pulled the plug on an $879 million Aerial Common Sensor contract with Lockheed Martin. The Army found that the weight of the Aerial Common Sensor electronics payload exceeded the Embraer 145 airframe, which was Lockheed's selected aircraft.

    In May 2006 it was reported in The Washington Post that when Robert Stevens took control of Lockheed Martin in 2004, he faced the dilemma that within 10 years 100,000 of the about 130,000 Lockheed Martin employees would be retiring.

    In 2006, Lockheed Corporation won a 3.9 billion dollar contract from NASA on August 31 to design and build the CEV capsule , also known as the Orion, for the nation’s next spaceship for human flight, for the Ares I rocket in the Constellation Program.

    On November 2, 2006, the $154 million Mars Global Surveyor suffered a critical malfunction. It had completed its primary mission in 2001 and was on its third extended mission when it finally failed. NASA reported on April 13, 2007 that the malfunction was caused by a faulty command sent from Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver caused an onboard battery to overheat, eventually causing a loss of power . The spacecraft was lost when the power loss cut off communications with the orbiter.

    On December 1, 2006 all of Lockheed Martin's commercial launch operations were transferred to the United Launch Alliance (ULA). This is a joint venture between Lockheed Martin and Boeing, first announced May 2, 2005.

    On February 13, 2007 a New Mexico State Court found Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, liable for $4.7 million in damages for the firing of a former network security analyst, Shawn Carpenter. Mr. Carpenter had reported to his supervisors that hundreds of military installations and defense contractors' networks were compromised and sensitive information was being stolen -- including hundreds of sensitive Lockheed documents on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project. When his supervisors told him to drop the investigation and do nothing with the information, he went to intelligence officials in the United States Army and later the FBI to address the national security breaches. When Sandia Corporation management discovered his actions months later, they revoked his security clearance and fired him.


    Corporate governance

    Current members of the board of directors of Lockheed Martin are: Edward Aldridge, Nolan Archibald, Marcus Bennett, James O. Ellis, Gwendolyn King, James Loy, Douglas McCorkindale, Eugene Murphy, Joseph Ralston, Frank Savage, Anne Stevens, Robert J. Stevens, James Ukropina, and Douglas Yearley.

    Divisions

    Aeronautics

    * Lockheed Martin Aeronautics
    * Lockheed Martin Aircraft & Logistics Centers

    Electronic Systems

    * Lockheed Martin Canada
    * Lockheed Martin Maritime Systems & Sensors
    * Lockheed Martin Missiles & Fire Control
    * Lockheed Martin Simulation , Training & Support
    * Lockheed Martin Systems Integration - Owego
    * Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Labs
    * Sandia Corporation

    Information Systems & Global Services

    * Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory
    * Lockheed Martin Enterprise Solutions & Services
    * Lockheed Martin Integrated Systems & Solutions
    o Lockheed Martin Orincon
    o Lockheed Martin STASYS
    * Lockheed Martin Technology Ventures
    * Lockheed Martin Transportation & Security Solutions
    * Lockheed Martin Business Process Solutions

    Space Systems

    * Lockheed Martin Space Systems

    Others

    * LMC Properties
    * Lockheed Martin Aircraft Argentina SA (formerly Fabrica Militar de Aviones)
    * Lockheed Martin Advanced Technologies Laboratory (ATL)
    * Lockheed Martin Enterprise Information Systems
    * Lockheed Martin Finance Corporation
    * Lockheed Martin U.K.

    Joint Ventures

    * International Launch Services (with Khrunichev, RSC Energia)
    * Lockheed Martin Alenia Tactical Transport Systems (with Finmeccanica-Alenia, now folded)
    * MEADS International (with EADS and MBDA)
    * Space Imaging (46%, remainder public)
    * United Launch Alliance (with Boeing)
    * United Space Alliance (with Boeing)
    * Kelly Aviation Center (with GE and Rolls-Royce)


    Trivia

    * Lockheed's Hellfire missiles were widely used in the invasion of Iraq.
    * Lockheed Martin sponsors the Lockheed Martin Maintenance Trophy, which is an annual competition that runs in parallel with the Fincastle competition, in which groundcrews of the P-3 Orion and the Nimrod MR2 compete in various tasks and exercises.
    * The song "Do You Like Me" by Post-hardcore band Fugazi uses the company's name in a refrain. The song was recorded in 1995, the same year that Lockheed and Martin Marietta merged.
    * The company's 3D-generating technology, Real3D, was used in conjunction with game design studio AM2 to create the first three arcade games in the Sega fighting game series Virtua Fighter.


  8. Top | #8

    • مدیر سابق بخش موبايل
    • تاریخ عضویت
      21-Jan-2007
    • رشته تحصیلی
      رياضي
    • محل سکونت
      E:51° 39" 40' N:32° 38" 30'(اصفهان)
    • پست‌ها
      4,197
    • سپاس
      3,274
    • 4,164 تشکر در 1,653 پست
    • قدرت امتیاز دهی
      18
    • امتیاز
      12

    پیش فرض پاسخ: Corporations

    Sukhoi



    logo

    Sukhoi Company
    Sukhoi logo
    Type Joint stock company
    Founded as OKB-51, 1939
    Headquarters Moscow, Russia
    Key people Pavel Sukhoi, founder
    Industry Aerospace and defense
    Products Military aircraft
    Civil airliners
    Website www.sukhoi.org

    Sukhoi (pronounced [suk-oi]) (Сухой) is a major Russian military fighter aircraft manufacturer. Founded by Pavel Sukhoi in 1939 as the Sukhoi Design Bureau (OKB-51, design office prefix Su), it is currently known as Sukhoi Corporation. It is comprised of the JSC Sukhoi Design Bureau located in Moscow, the Novosibirsk Aviation Production Association (NAPO), the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Production Association (KnAAPO) and Irkutsk Aviation. Sukhoi is headquartered in Moscow. Finmeccanica is purchasing 25% of Sukhoi's civil division. The Russian government is planning to merge Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Building Corporation.

    Currently the Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, Su-30, and shipborne Su-33 aircraft are in service of the Russian Air Force and Navy. Sukhoi attack or fighter aircraft were supplied to Armenia, India, China, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Germany, Syria, Algeria, North Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Iran, Angola, Ethiopia, Peru, Eritrea, and Indonesia. Venezuela will sign contracts for the purchase of 30 Su-30 fighter jets in July 2006. A total of more than 2000 Sukhoi aircraft were supplied to foreign countries on export contracts. With its Su-26, Su-29 and Su-31 models Sukhoi is also one of the leading manufacturers of aerobatic aircraft.

    On August 4, 2006 the US State Department imposed sanctions on Sukhoi for allegedly supplying Iran in violation of the United States Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000. Sukhoi is now prohibited from doing business with the United States Federal Government

    Production aircraft

    * Su-2 - light bomber
    * Su-7 - attack plane
    * Su-9 - interceptor fighter
    * Su-11 - interceptor fighter
    * Su-12 - observation plane (1947)
    * Su-15 - 1967, interceptor fighter
    * Su-17/Su-20/Su-22 - attack plane
    * Su-24 - 1974, jet bomber
    * Su-25 - ground attack aircraft
    * Su-26 - single seat aerobatic aircraft (civil)
    * Su-27 - 1984
    * Su-28/Su-25UB - Trainer and Demonstrator
    * Su-29 - double seat aerobatic aircraft (civil)
    * Su-30 - 1992
    * Su-31 - single seat aerobatic aircraft (civil)
    * Su-33 - 1994, carrier-based aircraft
    * Su-34 - 2006, "Platypus"
    * Su-27M/Su-35 - 1995
    * Su-25TM/Su-39 - ground attack aircraft, optimised for anti-tank use
    * Sukhoi-Gulfstream S-21 - a supersonic business jet design.
    * Su-80 - a twin-turboprop STOL transport
    * Superjet 100




    Experimental aircraft

    * Su-5 - jet-propeller fighter
    * Su-6 - ground attack aircraft
    * Su-8 - ground attack aircraft
    * Su-9 - jet fighter
    * Su-37 ("Terminator"), an improved Su-35
    * Su-38 light agricultural aircraft
    * S-32/37 - multirole fighter (was marketed for a time under the designation Su-47)
    * T-4 - supersonic bomber, very similar in concept to XB-70 Valkyrie, which was developed by Sukhoi during the 60's and 70's.
    * Sukhoi PAK FA

    Note: The Sukhoi OKB has reused aircraft designations on occasion, for example: the Su-9 from 1946 and the later Su-9 from 1956, the former was not produced in quantity. Sukhoi prototype designations are based on wing layout planform. Straight and swept wings are assigned the "S" prefix, while delta winged designs(including tailed-delta) have "T" for a designation prefix.

    Example: S-37 and T-10.




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